Michael O'Connor, Cheryl L. Thomas, Robert A. Zimmermann, Albert E. The involvement of defined regions of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA in the fidelity of decoding has been examined by analyzing the effects of rRNA mutations on misreading errors at the ribosomal A and P sites. These results indicate the involvement of all three regions of 16S rRNA in decoding functions at both the A and P sites. The functional similarity of all three mutant classes are consistent with close physical proximity of the region, the loop and helix 34 and suggest that all three regions of rRNA comprise a decoding domain in the ribosome.
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While ribosome can only work on one mRNA strand at a time, multiple ribosomes can bind to any mRNA strand to form polyribosomes. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes differ slightly in their size and complexity, though their function is generally similar. Until we discuss the specific properties of eukaryote translation, we will talk only about prokaryote translation. Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, one small and one large.
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In addition to the mRNA template, many molecules and macromolecules contribute to the process of translation. The composition of each component may vary across species. For instance, ribosomes may consist of different numbers of rRNAs and polypeptides depending on the organism. However, the general structures and functions of the protein synthesis machinery are comparable from bacteria to archaea to human cells.
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